1. Macro Photography is photography that is 1x magnification(1:1) or greater. For example, an insect that is 1/2 an inch when photographed on film at “life size” , it will take up 1/2 an inch on a piece of 35mm film. Macro photography allows us to experience what we would normally fail to notice with the naked eye. Up close, the eye of a lizard becomes a beautiful textured landscape, a tiny dust mite becomes what could be a creature out of a sci-fi movie, the fly on the wall seems to have an expression on its face.
2. En Plein Air is a French expression which means “in the open air”, and is particularly used to describe the act of painting outdoors. French Impressionist painters such as Claude Monet, Camille Pissarro, Vincent van Gogh, and Pierre-Auguste Renoir advocated en plein air painting, and much of their work was done outdoors, in the diffuse light provided by a large white umbrella. The popularity of painting en plein air increased in the 1870s with the introduction of paints in tubes which were easy to transport.
3. Frottage is a technique developed by German artist Max Ernst in 1925. Drawings were made by placing sheets of paper over different objects such as floorboards and leaves, and rubbing with a stick of graphite. Through precise selection, combination, control of texture and some discreet additions, he was able to build up delicate, surprising images of fantasy landscapes, plants and creatures. He adapted this fundamentally simple technique to painting in the form of grattage, by which textures and patterns were made through simultaneously rubbing and scraping off layers of paint. Representational forms were then extracted from the whole by means of over-painting.
4. Dadaism is a cultural movement that began in Zurich, Switzerland, during World War I and peaked from 1916 to 1922. The movement involved visual arts, literature—poetry, art manifestoes, art theory—theatre, and graphic design. It concentrated its anti-war politics through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works. Its purpose was to ridicule what its participants considered to be the meaninglessness of the modern world. In addition to being anti-war, Dada was also anti-bourgeois and anarchist in nature. Notable artists involved in the movement include: Max Ernst, Marcel Duchamp, Jean Arp, Andre Breton, and Man Ray.
5. Art Competitions formed part of the modern Olympic Games during its early years, from 1912 to 1952. The competitions were part of the original intention of the Olympic Movement’s founder, Pierre de Frédy, Baron de Coubertin. Medals were awarded for works of art inspired by sport, divided into five categories: architecture, literature, music, painting, and sculpture.
The juried art competitions were abandoned in 1954 because artists were considered to be professionals, while Olympic athletes were required to be amateurs. Since 1956, the Olympic cultural programme has taken their place.
Sources: Wikipedia (Art Competitions), Wikipedia (Dadaism), DAF (Frottage), DAF (Macro Photography), Wikipedia (en plein air)